The invasion began with Charles's crossing of the Vistula on 1 Januaryand effectively ended with the Swedish defeat in the Battle of Poltava on 8 Julythough Charles continued to pose a military threat to Russia for several years while under the protection of the Ottoman Turks. In the years preceding the invasion of Russia, Charles had inflicted significant defeats on the Danish and Polish forces, and enthroned the puppet king Stanislas "Russian style three" in Poland.
Having consolidated his victories there, Charles turned his attentions to Russia. He entered Russia by crossing the frozen Vistula River at the head of 40, men, approximately half of them cavalry. This tactic was characteristic of his military style, which relied on moving armies with great speed over unexpected terrain.
As a consequence of this rapid initiation of the campaign, Charles nearly gave battle with Peter the Great just one month into the campaign, reaching Hrodnanow in Belarusa mere two hours after Russian forces had abandoned it. Charles was a skilled military leader, and probably considered the invasion to be a risky enterprise; he had resisted the advice of his generals to invade during the Russian winter following the first Battle of Narva He "Russian style three" to continue his invasion now because he expected Swedish reinforcements and the alliance of the Cossacks under Ivan Mazepa.
The reinforcing Swedish army, however, was ambushed by Russians, and a Russian army under Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov had destroyed Mazepa's capital and chased him to Charles with just thirteen hundred men. The invasion was further complicated by the scorched earth strategy formulated by Peter and his generals. The Russian armies retreated continuously, dispersing the cattle and hiding the grain in the peasant towns they passed, burning unharvested crops, and leaving no resources for the Swedish army to stave off the Russian winter.
By the end of the winter of —, the " Great Frost of " had devastated the Swedish army and shrunk it to 24, men. In Maythe Swedish forces caught up
Russian style three the Russians, and the two armies clashed in the Battle of Poltava. The Swedish were defeated, and the greater part of Charles's army, some 19, men, were forced to surrender.
Charles fled with his men to the protection of the Ottoman Turks to the south, who were traditionally hostile to Russia.
Before Charles could give battle, though, Peter was able to bribe the Turkish vizier to peace; with this, Charles's ambitions to invade Russia were ended. The consequences of the failed invasion were far-reaching. The Swedish Empire never Russian style three new territory after the Battle of Poltava, and shortly thereafter lost more possessions.
Russia maintained its conquered possessions in Ingria and the Baltic, was able to consolidate its hold over Ukraine and Poland, develop the new city of Saint Petersburgand gain vital trade links in the Baltic trade. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charles XII invasion of Russia. The Dawn of the Tsarist Empire: Slaget vid Lesnaja in Swedish. Svenskt Militärhistorisk Biblioteks Förlag. En Biografi", "Russian style three," p. Svenska slagfält in Swedish.